Six chips or multiples thereof are bet. Australian Recording Industry Association. Das Roulette kam im Laufe des For example, "0 and the neighbors" is a 5-chip bet with one piece straight-up on 3, 26, 0, 32 and A number may be backed along with the two numbers on the either side of it in a 5-chip bet.
It remained in the top ten for three consecutive weeks, and for 12 weeks on the chart in total. Elsewhere in Europe, the song managed to top the charts in Norway,  Slovakia, and Switzerland,  and attained top five positions in Austria,  Belgium,   Finland,  France,  Germany,  Hungary,  Ireland,  Scotland  and Sweden.
Mandler spoke to MTV News , stating "I think that with this song and the meaning of this song and how loaded it all is, no pun intended, how much imagery and perhaps symbolism that is loaded in this song, the only way to do it was to do something that was visually challenging". The music video opens with shots of Rihanna hooded, lying on the floor of a gas chamber. Three men, dressed in black uniforms and wearing dark round glasses circulate around the singer, attempting to extort information from her.
The scene then moves to a dimly lit room in which Rihanna sits at a table with her love interest played by American actor Jesse Williams opposite. On the table between them lies a silver revolver in which, throughout the video, they take it turns holding to their heads. Other scenes include Rihanna in a woodland at night standing in the middle of a highway before a car speeds towards her, quickly cutting to another scene, giving the impression she is run over.
Elements of blood and tears and vehicular assault dominate the video. The video ends with her lover apparently committing suicide with the revolver placed between them.
The reception of the music video was mixed, with many critics noting its dark theme. James Montgomery of MTV reviewed the video stating: Online commented that the video "portrays "some seemingly real emotion with her bouncing back-and-forth between writhing around a padded cell.
Her first single from Rated R is a song about violence". Rihanna performed the song as part of a set list, which included " Wait Your Turn " and " Hard ", the latter of which Rihanna was joined on stage by Young Jeezy , to perform the song together. A reviewer from MTV UK stated that "The Barbadian beauty then sat seductively on stage in a throne that even the Beckhams would be proud of to belt out the ballad".
After the release of the album in the United States, she embarked on some promotional performances. The performance was similar to the one from the Nokia promotional concert and featured Rihanna sitting on a throne chair. She performed the song on a movable platform while wearing a floor-length gown covered with red LED lights.
Neil McCormick of The Telegraph , in a review of one of the tour's concerts, said: An Italian language version of the song was released by Italian performing duo Paola e Chiara in their album Milleluci. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
CD single digital download. Shaffer Smith Charles Harmon. Whatever she came with, if she came out with 'I still love you' that would have been about Chris Brown. If she came out with 'I hate your dog' that would have been about Chris Brown, too. It's just a natural reaction for people to associate 'cause she's been so tight-lipped.
Contemporary hit rhythmic urban radio. Retrieved October 21, Retrieved October 24, Retrieved April 4, Def Jam , SRP. Retrieved April 3, Retrieved April 7, Archived from the original on February 22, Retrieved February 8, Retrieved July 8, Rihanna Superstars of Hip-Hop. Rihanna, 'Rated R ' ".
The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, Retrieved April 5, Rihanna, Rated R Mercury ". Rihanna - 'Rated R' Mercury ". Retrieved July 31, Retrieved July 28, Chris Richards reviews the album 'Rated R' by Rihanna". Retrieved November 12, Archived from the original on July 24, Retrieved May 11, Retrieved November 22, The Official Charts Company. Retrieved January 29, Russian Roulette" in Finnish. Retrieved August 1, The Huffington Post Media Group.
Retrieved August 8, How dark is too dark? Retrieved August 5, Archived from the original on October 2, Retrieved March 10, Retrieved November 13, Retrieved October 25, Retrieved June 22, The cloth-covered betting area on a roulette table is known as the layout. The layout is either single-zero or double-zero. The European-style layout has a single zero, and the American style layout is usually a double-zero.
The American-style roulette table with a wheel at one end is now used in most casinos. The French style table with a wheel in the centre and a layout on either side is rarely found outside of Monte Carlo. Outside bets typically have smaller payouts with better odds at winning. Except as noted, all of these bets lose if a zero comes up. The payout except for the special case of Top line bets , for American and European roulette, can be calculated as.
The initial bet is returned in addition to the mentioned payout. It can be easily demonstrated that this payout formula would lead to a zero expected value of profit if there were only 36 numbers. Having 37 or 38 numbers gives the casino its edge. Note also that 0 and 00 are not odd or even, or high or low. En prison rules, when used, reduce the house advantage. The house average or house edge or house advantage also called the expected value is the amount the player loses relative for any bet made, on average.
The expected value is:. The presence of the green squares on the roulette wheel and on the table is technically the only house edge. Outside bets will always lose when a single or double zero comes up.
The only exceptions are the five numbers bet where the house edge is considerably higher 7. This is commonly called the "la partage" rule, and it is considered being the main difference of European and French roulette. There is also modification of this rule, which is called " en prison " rule.
These rules cut the house edge into half 1. The house edge should not be confused with the "hold". The hold is the average percentage of the money originally brought to the table that the player loses before he leaves—the actual "win" amount for the casino. This reflects the fact that the player is churning the same money over and over again.
In the early frontier gambling saloons, the house would set the odds on roulette tables at 27 for 1. Today most casino odds are set by law, and they have to be either 34 to 1 or 35 to 1.
As an example, we can examine the European roulette model, that is, roulette with only one zero. The rules of European roulette have 10 types of bets. First we can examine the 'Straight Up' bet. For similar reasons it is simple to see that the profitability is also equal for all remaining types of bets.
In reality this means that, the more bets a player makes, the more he is going to lose independent of the strategies combinations of bet types or size of bets that he employs:. Here, the profit margin for the roulette owner is equal to approximately 2.
Nevertheless, several roulette strategy systems have been developed despite the losing odds. These systems can not change the odds of the game in favor of the player. Although most often named "call bets" technically these bets are more accurately referred to as "announced bets".
The legal distinction between a "call bet" and an "announced bet" is that a "call bet" is a bet called by the player without him placing any money on the table to cover the cost of the bet.
In many jurisdictions most notably the United Kingdom this is considered gambling on credit and is illegal in some jurisdictions around the world. An "announced bet" is a bet called by the player for which he immediately places enough money to cover the amount of the bet on the table, prior to the outcome of the spin or hand in progress being known.
There are different number series in roulette that have special names attached to them. Most commonly these bets are known as "the French bets" and each covers a section of the wheel. For the sake of accuracy, zero spiel, although explained below, is not a French bet, it is more accurately "the German bet".
Players at a table may bet a set amount per series or multiples of that amount. The series are based on the way certain numbers lie next to each other on the roulette wheel. Not all casinos offer these bets, and some may offer additional bets or variations on these.
The series is on a single-zero wheel. Nine chips or multiples thereof are bet. Two chips are placed on the trio; one on the split; one on ; one on ; one on ; two on the corner; and one on Zero game, also known as zero spiel Spiel is German for game or play , is the name for the numbers closest to zero. All numbers in the zero game are included in the voisins, but are placed differently. The numbers bet on are The bet consists of four chips or multiples thereof.
Three chips are bet on splits and one chip straight-up: This type of bet is popular in Germany and many European casinos. It is also offered as a 5-chip bet in many Eastern European casinos. As a 5-chip bet, it is known as "zero spiel naca" and includes, in addition to the chips placed as noted above, a straight-up on number This is the name for the 12 numbers that lie on the opposite side of the wheel between 27 and 33, including 27 and 33 themselves.
On a single-zero wheel, the series is Very popular in British casinos, tiers bets outnumber voisins and orphelins bets by a massive margin. Six chips or multiples thereof are bet. One chip is placed on each of the following splits: The tiers bet is also called the "small series" and in some casinos most notably in South Africa "series ". A variant known as "tiers " has an additional chip placed straight up on 5, 8, 10 and 11; and so is a piece bet.
In some places the variant is called "gioco Ferrari" with a straight up on 8, 11, 23 and 30; the bet is marked with a red G on the racetrack. These numbers make up the two slices of the wheel outside the tiers and voisins. They contain a total of 8 numbers, comprising and Five chips or multiples thereof are bet on four splits and a straight-up: A number may be backed along with the two numbers on the either side of it in a 5-chip bet.
For example, "0 and the neighbors" is a 5-chip bet with one piece straight-up on 3, 26, 0, 32 and Neighbors bets are often put on in combinations, for example "1, 9, 14 and the neighbors" is a chip bet covering 18, 22, 33, 16 with one chip; 9, 31, 20, 1 with two chips and 14 with three chips. Any of the above bets may be combined, e.
Final 4, for example, is a 4-chip bet and consists of one chip placed on each of the numbers ending in 4, that is 4, 14, 24 and Final 7 is a 3-chip bet, one chip each on 7, 17 and Final bets from final 0 zero to final 6 cost four chips.
Final bets 7, 8 and 9 cost three chips. Some casinos also offer split-final bets, for example final would be a 4-chip bet, one chip each on the splits , , and one on A complete bet places all of the inside bets on a certain number.
Full complete bets are most often bet by high rollers as maximum bets. The maximum amount allowed to be wagered on a single bet in European roulette is based on a progressive betting model. For instance, if a patron wished to place a full complete bet on 17, the player would call "17 to the maximum". To manually place the same wager, the player would need to bet:. The player calls his bet to the croupier most often after the ball has been spun and places enough chips to cover the bet on the table within reach of the croupier.
The croupier will immediately announce the bet repeat what the player has just said , ensure that the correct monetary amount has been given while simultaneously placing a matching marker on the number on the table and the amount wagered. The player's wagered 40 chips, as with all winning bets in roulette, are still his property and in the absence of a request to the contrary are left up to possibly win again on the next spin. Based on the location of the numbers on the layout, the number of chips required to "complete" a number can be determined.
Most typically Mayfair casinos in London and other top-class European casinos with these maximum or full complete bets, nothing except the aforementioned maximum button is ever placed on the layout even in the case of a win.
Experienced gaming staff, and the type of customers playing such bets, are fully aware of the payouts and so the croupier simply makes up the correct payout, announces its value to the table inspector floor person in the U. Also typically at this level of play house rules allowing the experienced croupier caters to the needs of the customer and will most often add the customer's winning bet to the payout, as the type of player playing these bets very rarely bets the same number two spins in succession.
There are also several methods to determine the payout when a number adjacent to a chosen number is the winner; for example, player bets 40 chips on "23 to the maximum" and number 26 is the winning number.
The most notable method is known as the "station" system or method. When paying in stations, the dealer counts the number of ways or stations that the winning number hits the complete bet. In the example above, 26 hits 4 stations — 2 different corners, 1 split and 1 six-line. The dealer takes the number 4, multiplies it by 30 and adds the remaining 8 to the payout: If calculated as stations, they would just multiply 4 by 36, making with the players bet down.
Over the years, many people have tried to beat the casino, and turn roulette—a game designed to turn a profit for the house—into one on which the player expects to win. Most of the time this comes down to the use of betting systems, strategies which say that the house edge can be beaten by simply employing a special pattern of bets, often relying on the " Gambler's fallacy ", the idea that past results are any guide to the future for example, if a roulette wheel has come up 10 times in a row on red, that red on the next spin is any more or less likely than if the last spin was black.
All betting systems that rely on patterns, when employed on casino edge games will result, on average, in the player losing money. Certain systems, such as the Martingale, described below, are extremely risky, because the worst-case scenario which is mathematically certain to happen, at some point may see the player chasing losses with ever-bigger bets until he runs out of money.
The American mathematician Patrick Billingsley said  that no betting system can convert a subfair game into a profitable enterprise. At least in the s, some professional gamblers were able to consistently gain an edge in roulette by seeking out rigged wheels not difficult to find at that time and betting opposite the largest bets.
Whereas betting systems are essentially an attempt to beat the fact that a geometric series with initial value of 0. Thorp the developer of card counting and an early hedge-fund pioneer and Claude Shannon a mathematician and electronic engineer best known for his contributions to information theory built the first wearable computer to predict the landing of the ball in This system worked by timing the ball and wheel, and using the information obtained to calculate the most likely octant where the ball would fall.